If one has a confrontation with a moderator whose actions seem to be capricious and baselessly retaliatory, what's the procedure required to lodge a complaint?
Before you file a formal complaint with SE, you should get a sense what the community thinks about the issue by asking about it here. In the past, you've complained about similar things, but the community felt your complaints weren't justified. Seeing such a reaction should make you stop and think that maybe the problem is on your end, not with a particular moderator.
In general, my impression is that you go out of your way to be contrary, pick fights with people, push the limits of what you are allowed to do here, then try to defend yourself by arguing the letter of the law. The presumption of rightness will be with the moderators until you can make a good case otherwise. If you can't convince your peers, then you don't have a case.
To convert Dave Tweed's comment into an answer:
The StackExchange Meta has What recourse do I have if I believe a moderator has abused his/her privileges? with a good Community Wiki Answer covering the process and structure for working with moderators.