This question: "What makes a computer a computer? [closed]" has been put on hold.
The original poster was unable to ask their question in a format suitable for this medium but I think the implied question - What is the difference between ASICs/micro-controllers and computers? - can be addressed to add value.
While more specific, this question: "Is BeagleBone Black a microcontroller or computer?" is along the same lines but I feel fails to address some of the theoretical components.
I have written an answer - referencing Alan Turing's model for computation and the critical differences between memory management between micro-controllers and computers that I think could elucidate the subject (i.e. without an MMU microcontrollers lack support for crucial paradigms like processes, dynamic linking, and protected memory that most programmers use to reason about computers).
I would normally include this in a comment but as a low rep user I am unable to do so, nor am I able to direct message the poster.
Do I have any recourse?